Figure 1 Placebo-needle when touching the skin (a) and after retraction of the needle into the handle (b), real acupuncture needle (c) (3)



Figure 2 The Park Sham Device (5)



Table 1 Results of the validation study for the Streitberger needle (3)



Table 2 RCT with non-penetrating devices (n=40)



Table 3 RCT with non-penetrating devices including >50 patients (n=20)