Figure 1. Typical examples of clinical data of acupuncture, sham and waiting list, or standard care on the patients of low back pain



Figure 2. Example of neural responses of a C mechano-heat receptor to PTN and its sham and non-penetrating acupuncture stimuli



Figure 3. Effects of real PTN and its sham on muscle symptoms in triathlon athlete



Table 1. Summary of characteristics of polymodal receptors and their relations to acupuncture and moxibustion stimuli and acupuncture/ trigger points