Japanese Acupuncture and Moxibustion (Online)
JAM  2019;Vol.15(1):13-22
Survey of the management status of acupuncture and moxibustion and massage clinics in Japan: Differences by license type and the presence or absence of visual impairment
KONDO Hiroshi1), FUJII Ryosuke1), YANO Tadashi2), FUKUSHIMA Masaya1)
1)Course of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Department of Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tsukuba University of Technology
2)Meiji University of Integrative Medicine, Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion
Abstract
[Background] Of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), Acupuncture, moxibustion and massage (AMM) therapy has become a widely popular practice sought by many suffering from a wide range of health problems. However, the true management status of AMM clinics has not been explored in detail. This information will aid in clarifying differences in licensing type and the existence of visually impaired people in Japanese AMM clinics.
[Methods] Objectives: This study aimed to clarify the management status of acupuncture, moxibustion, and massage clinics. This information will aid in clarifying differences in licensing type and the existence of visually impaired people in Japanese acupuncture, moxibustion, and massage clinics.
Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study.Setting: Laboratory of Tsukuba University of Technology (Tsukuba City, Japan).
Interventions: We extracted 20,000 clinics from approximately 100,000 acupuncture, moxibustion, and massage clinics listed by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (Tokyo, Japan).
Main outcome measures: We mailed a questionnaire to the clinics. The response rate was 23.0% (4605 responses). All questionnaires (n = 2983) completely filled out by operating businesses were included in the tabulation.
[Results] The respondents’ mean age was 52.3±13.4 years. Mean age of those who held only massage license was the highest among the practitioner groups. Most individuals held multiple licenses for acupuncture, moxibustion, and massage. The mean treatment fee for all practitioners was 3552.2±4174.5 yen. The mean monthly patient count for all clinics was 227.4±441.2. The median yearly income globally was 3.5 million yen. Different license types were associated with differences in yearly income. The yearly income was highest for practitioners licensed only for judo therapy, followed by practitioners of acupuncture and moxibustion + judo, and practitioners of acupuncture, moxibustion, and massage + judo. The average yearly income was 35% lower for visually impaired practitioners than for sighted practitioners.
[Conclusions] The management status of acupuncture, moxibustion, and massage clinics in Japan indicate income disparities between practitioners, based on vision status and license type.